Lecture 01: Image. Clearing of the image

Computer graphics in Game development

Ivan Belyavtsev


Who I am

Ivan Belyavtsev

Senior developer technology engineer at NVIDIA (in graphics)

Researcher and educator in Computer science

Webpage: djbelyak.ru


The views and opinions expressed in this course are those of my own and do not represent those of my employer, NVIDIA

Let’s get acquainted

Please, introduce yourself and tell us about your most favorite game

Administrative: Schedule

  1. 01/21-01/22 - 5 classes
  2. 02/04-02/05 - 5 classes
  3. 02/18-02/19 - 5 classes
  4. 03/04-03/05 - 5 classes + Final assessment


  1. 01/21-01/22 - Basics of rasterization
  2. 02/04-02/05 - Basics of ray tracing
  3. 02/18-02/19 - Basics of DirectX 12
  4. 03/04-03/05 - Advanced technics and algorithms

How we will work

  • During classes
    • Little portion of theory
    • Practical exercises based on labs
  • Between blocks
    • Repeating of materials
    • Complete the labs
    • Make something creative
    • Submit you your labs before the next block
  • Final
    • Test in Moodle

Course check points

  1. Homework “Basic of rasterization” - 25 points
  2. Homework “Basics of ray tracing” - 25 points
  3. Homework “Basics of DirectX 12” - 25 points
  4. Final test - 25 points

Target audience

This course was designed with the next suppositions:

  • students have strong knowledge in linear algebra
  • students have strong knowledge of C++
  • students don’t have any experience with computer graphics, graphics APIs, and game engines

This course requires a lot of discipline and energy

Expectations vs reality

What we won’t cover

  • 3D modeling as art
  • Animation
  • Game engines
  • Music and sounds
  • Game design
  • Network

Hardware requirements

DirectX 12 works on Windows only

You need PC with Win10/11 or VM with Win10/11

Basics of rasterization and ray tracing could be executed on different platforms

Software requirements

The simplest way to install all needed software

  1. Run Visual Studio Community installation
  2. Choose the next workloads and components during installation:
    1. Desktop development with C++
    2. Game development with C++
    3. Git for Windows
  3. (Optional) Install CLion

These slides

Communication channels

telegram channel telegram chat

Do you have any questions about administrative part?

Let’s dive into computer graphics

From: https://i.imgur.com/6qgzdkE.jpg

Types of sciences

  • Social
  • Natural
  • Axiological [1]

Aim and principles of applied sciences

  • Aim to make something the most effective way
  • Efficiency maximization principle [2]

Aim and principles of computer science

  • Is computer science an applied science? [1]
  • Aim to process, store, and transfer information by the most effective way [3]

Aim and principles of computer graphics

  • Is computer graphics a computer science?
  • Aim to create, process, store, and transfer visual information by the most effective way

Aim and principles computer graphics in game development

  • Aim to create, process, store, and transfer of visual representation of an in-game world to a player by the most effective way
  • What’s mean “the most effective way” here?


Rendering is a process of generating a photorealistic or non-photorealistic image from 2D or 3D model by means of a computer program [4]

Rendering pipeline

Rendering pipeline

Let’s define what is the image

Physics and anatomy will help us

What is the light

From: https://www.color-management-guide.com/eye-and-colors.html


Human eye

  • Rods - light quantity
  • Cones - light quality
    • S-cones - blue
    • M-cones - green
    • L-cones - red


Color perception

From: https://www.color-management-guide.com/eye-and-colors.html



Pixel is the smallest part of the image

From: https://www.color-management-guide.com/eye-and-colors.html


Pixel density

From: https://www.extremetech.com/computing/122725-what-the-ipad-3s-retina-display-looks-like-under-a-microscope


Color quantization and sRGB gamut

From: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a8/CIExy1931_sRGB.png


Image and render target

Image is an \(N \times M\) array of pixels, where each pixel stores information about the intensity of red, blue, and green colors [9]

Render target is a region of memory in which the image will be drawn

Lab: Preparations

  1. Create your own repo base upon the template: https://github.com/djbelyak/computer-graphics-in-game-development-s2022
  2. Don’t forget git submodule update --init --recursive to get all submodules
  3. Explore the project files

Lab: Image clearing

  1. Implement cg::resource class
  2. Implement cg::color and cg::unsigned_color structs
  3. Implement set_render_target, set_viewport, clear_render_target methods of cg::renderer::rasterizer class
  4. Implement image clearing & saving in cg::renderer::rasterization_renderer class


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Kanke V.A. Metascientific and philosophical reasons to define the status of computer science // Automatic Documentation and Mathematical Linguistics. 2017. Vol. 51. P. 101–107.
Strothotte T., Schlechtweg S. Non-photorealistic computer graphics: Modeling, rendering, and animation // Morgan Kaufmann. 2002. P.
Frich A. The human eye and colour perception [Electronic resource]. 2015. URL: https://www.color-management-guide.com/eye-and-colors.html.
McGuire M. The graphics codex. 2.14 ed. Casual Effects, 2018.
Anthony S. What the iPad 3’s retina display looks like under a microscope [Electronic resource]. 2012. URL: What the iPad 3’s Retina display looks like under a microscope.
Hunt R.W.G., Pointer M.R. Measuring colour. Wiley, 2011.
Lyon R. A brief history of ’pixel // Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering. 2006. Vol. 6069. P.
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